12th Zoology

Birth control

Birth control

The population problem is assuming serious proportions in many
developing countries. In India, the population which was about 400 million in
1960 is now 100 crores or 1000 million. Realizing the dangers inherent in
population growth, the government of India has taken several measures to
check population growth and have given family welfare programmes an important
place in the five year plans. The World Health Organization (WHO)
has also stressed the importance of family planning in the Global Strategy for
Health for All by 2000 AD.

The National Family Welfare programme is a comprehensive scheme
which includes:

1. Maternal and Child Health Care (MCH)
2. Immunization of mothers, infants and children.
3. Nutritional supplement to pregnant women and to children.
4. Contraception with health education, to motivate couples to accept
contraceptive methods and to adopt small family norms.

Contraception :

Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy resulting from coitus.

Barrier Methods for Birth control

Prevents entry of sperms into vagina or uterus.

(a) The Condom: The male wears a condom which covers the erect
penis, and prevents deposition of sperms in the vagina. Condoms are made
of rubber from latex. Ejaculated semen is retained within the condom
preventing their entry into uterus. In India thin condoms called Nirodh, are
manufactured and widely used. Condoms can be combined with spermicides
inserted into the vagina. Condom also protects against sexually transmitted
diseases (STD) like syphilis, AIDS.

(b) The Diaphragm (cervical cap): Women can wear a vaginal
diaphragm fitting into the vagina or a cervical cap fitting over the cervix.
They prevent entry of sperms into the uterus. They are made of synthetic
rubber or plastic, and are used in combination with chemical spermicides.

Hormonal Methods for Birth control

Hormones are prescribed as pills, implants, or injections. Some
hormonal contraceptives contain only progestin, which is a type of female
hormone and some contain a combination of both (combined pill)
progesterone and oestrogen and prevents ovulation. Hormonal methods are nearly 99 percent effective. The effects of Hormonal method stops (interfere)
the mechanism of ovulation. They can also stop the mechanism of conduction
of ovum along the fallopian tubes. The hormones interfere in the thickening
of the endometrium and they may also cause the formation of mucus in the
cervix and vagina to prevent the penetration of sperms.

Mechanical Methods for Birth control

The intrauterine device (IUD) and intrauterine system (IUS) are
contraceptive devices inserted into the uterus. Copper-T is a synthetic T
shaped device made up of copper and plastic (non irritant), is placed inside
the uterus. This can remain for a period of 3 years. This also helps to give
adequate time inerval between pregnancies.

Surgical Methods for Birth control

Surgical contraception, or sterilization, is an operation that makes a
person infertile. This surgery can be carried out in men (vasectomy) and
women (tubectomy).

Vasectomy is the method of permanent birth control in male in which
the removal of a part of the vas deferens and ligations are performed. It is
simple in all aspects. Male sterilization is not immediately effective. The seminal
vesicles still contain sperm after the operation, and a condom must be used
until semen analysis shows that no sperm are left. Tubectomy is the method
of permanent birth control in female, here a portion of fallopian tube is cut of
and the cut ends are ligated to prevent fertilization. Female sterilization is
effective immediately, but the risk of ectopic pregnancy is slightly increased.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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