12th Zoology

Vitamins – Functions of vitamins

Vitamins


Vitamins are complex organic compounds, whose presence in trace
amount in the food is essential for growth and other physiological activities.
Vitamins do not have any energy value. However they are essential for
controlling energy yielding processes. The identified vitamins are classified
as A,B,C,D,E and K. Of these, vitamin B and C are water soluble in nature.
Vegetables and fruits containing these vitamins if washed in water as cut pieces
would loose them easily. Vitamin A,D,E and K, if consumed beyond
required level may cause defects, commonly referred to as vitaminosis.
Of the various vitamins, vitamin D or calciferol on exposure to sunlight
can be synthesised by our body through the lipid compound called ergosterol,
found below our skin. Hence it is known as ‘sunshine vitamin’.

Functions of vitamins

The most important functions of vitamins include.
1. Physiological processes : Vitamin A plays a very important role in visual
perception. Vitamin E might ensure fertility in animals. The clotting of blood
is aided by vitamin K. Vitamin C provides immunity against infections and it
may also support processes of growth.

2. Maintenance of body tissues : The epithelial tissues of the body are
maintained by vitamin A and B2. The growth of bones is ensured by vitamin
D. Vitamin E plays a role in the rejuvenation of tissues. Nourishment to
nerve cells is provided by vitamin B1. The process of maturation of
erythrocytes is due to vitamin B12.

3. Metabolic processes : The process of calcium and phosphorus
metabolism happens due to the presence of vitamin D. Vitamin E remains an
antioxidant. Vitamin B1 remains as a co-enzyme in tissue metabolism and it
is found useful in the process of oxidation of glucose in CNS. Vitamin B2 is
essential for carbohydrate metabolism. Niacin (vitamin B) plays a role as a
co-enzyme and is essential for oxidation-reduction reactions. Normal
metabolism of amino acids and fat are due to vitamin B6. Biotin (vitamin B)
serves as a co-enzyme and co-factor in oxidative metabolism. Vitamin C
activates certain intra-cellular enzymes.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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