12th Zoology

Spinal cord functioning

Spinal cord functioning

The spinal cord remains as a connecting, functional nervous structure
in between the brain and sensory / effector organs. The sensory inputs
received by sense organs are conducted towards appropriate regions of the
brain. Similarly from the brain motor sensations are transmitted towards
effector structures. Further as the brain, the spinal cord can effect motor
initiation and bring about an effect. This activity is known as reflex action.

Reflex action

Reflex action is the spontaneously involuntary response caused due
to stimulation of receptor organ. E.g. The quick closure of eye lid when
some object touches the eyelashes.; the sudden withdrawl of hand when the
hand touches hot pan.

A reflex action is an involuntary process and does not involve the
intervention of consciousness. The anatomical basis of reflex action is the
reflex arc. It is a nerve chain between receptor organ and effector organ.
The reflex arc has the following route.
Sensory organ ® sensory or afferent neuron ® grey matter of the
spinal cord ® intermediary or relay neuron ® efferent or motor neuron ®
effector organ.

Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF)

The ventricle of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
contain, a clear fluid similar to plasma called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
CSF is formed by a group of cells called the choroid plexus located inside
the four ventricles. In human the volume of CSF is 150 ml and the rate of its
secretion is 550 ml/day. (Spinal cord)

Functions (Spinal cord)

1. CSF cushions the brain against mechanical shock when the head moves.
2. It acts as a protective covering for the CNS and confers buoyancy to
brain.
3. The CSF also provides a reservoir of hormones and nutrition for the brain
and spinal cord.
4. It acts as a mechanical buffer. Remaining inside and outside the CNS, it
equalizes the mechanical pressure. If the intracranial pressure tends to rise
the CSF is pressured out. If the pressure tends to fall, more CSF is retained.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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