12th Zoology

Pasteur, Koch, Lister

Pasteur, Koch, Lister


Medical Microbiology involves the study of micro organisms that
colonize or infect human beings; the mechanism by which they cause
diseases; the body’s response to infection and specific antimicrobial
prevention and treatment.

The contribution of Louis pasteur (1822 – 1895) in France in the
field of microbiology lead to a greater understanding of human ailments and
animal diseases. Much of Pasteur’s work involved the growth of bacteria
and yeasts in liquid cultures. He developed methods of sterilization and of
pasteurization. Pasteur (1857) observed different kind of microbes
associated with different kinds of fermentation. e.g. Spheres of variable size
(yeast cells) within alcohol fermentation and smaller rods (Lactobacilli) with
lactic fermentation. This finding led Pasteur to state that specific microbe
may cause specific disease in man.

His crowning achievements were Pasteurisation of milk, the
development of techniques to reduce the virulence of infectious organism,
without eliminating their capacity to produce immunity. In this way he
developed vaccines, for the control of “cholera” “anthrax” and “rabies” in
man.

Robert Koch – (1843 – 1910)

Robert Koch, a younger contemporary of Pasteur, made his
contributions on new procedures for staining, visualizing and growing
bacteria. He solidified liquid culture media with agar. He also isolated and
characterized the bacilli of anthrax, and tuberculosis and demonstrated their
causative role by a series of experiments.

After identifying the tubercle bacillus, Koch has advocated his
postulate, in order to distinguish a pathogenic microbe from adventitious
microbes. The impact of his work towards the end of 19th century lead to
the discovery of “specific toxins” made by the causative bacteria for
diphtheria and tetanus and “antibodies” produced in host animals against the toxins to neutralise their effect. His finding also lead to immunization therapy.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1905 for his work on
tuberculosis.

Contributions of Joseph Lister : (1827 – 1912) to microbiology is the
technique of “pure culture” of bacteria. The growth of a mass of cells of the
same species in a laboratory vessel / test tube using serial dilutions in the
liquid media is called pure culture. Lister obtained a pure culture of the
organism Bacterium lactis and also found the importance of pure culture
which form the suitable media for the growth of micro organisms, reponsible
for infections, fermentation, nitrogen fixation in soil, etc. The pure culture
techniques lead to developments in modern microbiology.

On the basis on Pasteur’s evidence, in 1860 Joseph Lister,
discovered a system for “antiseptic” surgery. This system prevents the
surgical wound infection and other lethal complications.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Microbiology Introduction and History of Medical Microbiology

  2. Pasteur, Koch, Lister

  3. Structure of Viruses

  4. Viral genetics

  5. Virus Culture

  6. Viral Diseases

  7. Bacteria Structure Culture

  8. Bacterial Genetics

  9. Bacterial Diseases

  10. Protozoan microbiology

  11. Pathogenecity of Microorganisms

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance

  13. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy

  14. AIDS – HIV

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