12th Zoology

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction is a coronary artery disease
which involves sudden death of part of the heart muscle due to blockage in
the coronary artery. It may cause severe unremitting chest pain.

Causes of Myocardial infarction

The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with fresh
oxygenated blood become narrowed. This narrowing is usually due to an
accumulation of droplets of fatty substances, like cholesterol. The fibrous
cover of the fat deposit sometimes rupture, triggering the formation of a blood
clot. If this blood clot blocks the artery, blood flow to an area of the heart
muscle stops, causing myocardial infarction and leads to death of tissue.

Symptoms of Myocardial infarction

(1) Severe heavy crushing pain may spread up to the neck and
in to the arms especially the left arm. (2) Sweating (3) Shortness of breath
(4) Nausea and vomiting (5) Anxiety sometimes accompanied by fear of
dying.
About one in five people experience no chest pain in myocardial
infarction. However, there may be fainting, sweating and pale skin. This
pattern of symptom is known as “silent infarction”. This type of infarction is
common in people with diabetes mellitus or those with elevated blood
pressure.

Risk factors of Myocardial infarction

1. Habitual cigarette smokers have a substantially increased risk of dying
from myocardial infarction.
2. High blood pressure is a major risk factor and the risk increases with
higher pressure.

3. The risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease increases
dramatically in those who are more than 30 percent overweight.
4. A raised blood cholesterol level increases the risk. A high fat diet is also a
factor.
5. Physical inactivity is also a major factor.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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