botany Musaceae
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Musaceae – Musa paradisiaca and its Economic Importance

Musaceae – Musa paradisiaca and its Economic Importance

Musaceae – Musa paradisiaca and its Economic Importance

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MONOCOT FAMILY

MUSACEAE – the banana family Systematic position

Class : Monocotyledonae
Series : Epigynae
Family : Musaceae

General characters – Musaceae

Distribution

Musaceae includes about 6 genera and about 150 species. The members of this family are widely distributed over tropical regions of the world.

In India it is represented by 2 genera and about 25 species.

Habit

Mostly perennial herbs attaining considerable height, perennating by means of rhizome (eg. Musa paradisiaca – Banana), rarely trees (eg. Ravenala madagascariensis – Traveller’s palm) and watery sap is present.

Root

Generally fibrous adventitious root system is seen.

Stem

In Musa the real stem is underground called rhizome.

The apparent, unbranched, errect and areal pseudostem is formed by the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases which are rolled around one another to form an aerial pseudostem.

The central axis that is concealed at the bottom of the pseudostem is called shaft.

At the time of flowering, the shaft elongates, pierces through the pseudostem and produces an inflorescence terminally.

Musa is a monocorpic perennial, because it produces flowers and fruits once during its life time.

In Ravenala, the stem is aerial and woody.

Leaf

Simple with a long and strong petiole. The leaf blade is large and broad with sheathy leaf base.

The leaf is extipulate and obtuse. The pinnately parellel venation extends upto the leaf margin.

The phyllotaxy is spiral in Musa but in Ravenala it is distichous i.e. the leaves are arranged in two rows on the same sides.

Inflorescence

In Musa, the inflorescence is branced spadix.

The flowers are protected by large, brightly coloured, spirally arranged, boat shaped bracts called spathes.

When the flowers open, the spathes roll back and finally fall off. In Ravenalea, the inflorescence is a compound cyme.

In Musa, the flowers are polygamous i.e. staminate flowers, pistillate flowers and bisexual flowers are present in the same plant.

The male flowers lie within the upper bracts, the female flowers within the lower bracts and the bisexual flowers within the middle bracts.

Flowers

Brateate, ebractiolate, sessile, trimerous, unisexual or bisexual, when unisexual, the flowers are monoecious.

The flowers are zygomorphic and epigynous.

Perianth

Tepals 6, arranged in two whorls of 3 each, free or united.

In Musa, the three tepals of the outer whorl and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fused by valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube like structure.

The inner posterior tepal is alone free. It is distinctly broad and membranous.

Androecium

Basically stamens 6, in two whorls of 3 each, arranged opposite to the tepals. In Musa only 5 stamens are fertile and the inner posterior stamen is either absent or represented by a staminode.

In Ravenala, all the 6 stamens are fertile. Anthers are dithecous and they dehisce by vertical slits.

The filament is filiform and rudimentary ovary or pistillode is often present in the male flower.

Gynoecium

Ovary inferior, tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular, numerous ovules on axile placentation.

The style is simple and filiform. The stigma is three lobed.

Fruit

An elongated fleshy berry without seeds eg. Musa and a capsule eg. Ravenala.

Seed:

Non – endospermous

Botanical description of Musa paradisiaca – Musaceae

Habit

Gignatic monocorpic perennial herb.

Root

Fibrous adventitious root system.

Stem

The real stem is underground called rhizome.

The apparent, unbranched, errect and areal pseudostem is formed by the long, stiff and sheathy leaf bases which are rolled around one another to form an aerial pseudostem.

The central axis that is concealed at the bottom of the pseudostem is called shaft.

At the time of flowering, the shaft elongates, pierces through the pseudostem and produces an inflorescence terminally.

Leaf

Simple with a long and strong petiole. The leaf blade is large and broad with sheathy leaf base.

The leaf is extipulate and obtuse. The pinnately parellel venation extends upto the leaf margin. The phyllotaxy is spiral.

Inflorescence

It is branced spadix.

The flowers are protected by large, brightly coloured, spirally arranged, boat shaped bracts called spathes.

When the flowers open, the spathes roll back and finally fall off.

Flowers

Brateate, ebractiolate, sessile, trimerous, unisexual or bisexual, when unisexual, the flowers are monoecious.

The flowers are zygomorphic and epigynous.

Perianth

Tepals 6, arranged in two whorls of 3 each. The three tepals of the outer whorl and the two lateral tepals of the inner whorl are fused by valvate aestivation to form 5 toothed tube like structure.

The inner posterior tepal is alone free. It is distinctly broad and membranous.

Androecium

Stamens 6, in two whorls of 3 each, arranged opposite to the tepals.

Only 5 stamens are fertile and the inner posterior stamen is either absent or represented by a staminode.

Anthers are dithecous and they dehisce by vertical slits.

The filament is filiform and rudimentary ovary or pistillode is often present in the male flower.

Gynoecium

Ovary inferior, tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular, numerous ovules on axile placentation.

The style is simple and filiform. The stigma is three lobed.

Fruit

An elongated fleshy berry and the seeds are not produced in cultivated varities.
Floral formulae
Male flower .. Br., Ebrl., , , P(3+2)+1, A 3+3 , G 0.
0
Female flower .. Br., Ebrl., , , P(3+2)+1, A 0, G(3).
~
Bisexual flower .. Br., Ebrl., , , P(3+2)+1, A 3+3, G(3).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Musaceae

1. Food plants

The fruits of Musa paradisiaca (Banana) are edible.

The tender green bananas, the shaft and the flowers are cooked and eaten as vegetable.

The leaves are commonly used as plates on festive occassions.

The sap obtained from the sheathy leaf bases is considered to be an antidote for cobra bite.

The small fruits obtained from Musa chinensis (Dwarf banana) are sweet and edible.

2. Fibre plant

The fibres obtained from sheathy leaf bases of Musa textilis (Manila hemp) are woven into Abaca cloth and used for cordage.

It is also known as Manila hemp. This plant is extensively grown in Philippines.

3. Ornamental plants

Ravenala madagascariensis (Traveller’s palm), Strelitzia reginae (the bird of paradise flower) and Heliconia sp. are grown as ornamentals.

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QUESTION

  1. What is polygamous ? Give an example.
  2. What is monocorpic perennial ? Give an example
  3. Write the systematic position of musaceae
  4. Explain the gynoecium of Musa paradisiaca,.
  5. Draw the floral diagram of bisexual flower of Musa paradisiaca and write floral formula.
  6. What is pseudostem? How is it formed in Musa paradisiaca ?
  7. List out the economic importance of Musa paradisiaca.
  8. Write the differences between Musa and Ravenala.
  9. Describe the androecium and gynoecium of Musa paradisiaca.
  10. Write the economic importance of members of musaceae.
  11. Describe Musa paradisiaca  in technical terms.
  12. Write the general characteristic features of Musaceae

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Other links 

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS, TYPES OF CLASSIFICATION


BIOSYSTEMATICS NOMENCLATURE


BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, ICBN


HERBARIA AND ITS USES IMPORTANCE OF HERBARIUM


Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants


Dicot Families – MALVACEAE


Botanical description of Hibiscus and Economical importance of Malvaceae


Solanaceae – Datura metal and Economic importance


Euphorbiaceae and Ricinus communis and its Economic importance


 

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