12th Zoology

Management of non hazardous wastes – Solid Waste Management

Management of non hazardous wastes – Solid Waste Management

1.Sanitary land fills :

The refuse is spread in a hollow land or in a trench
and compacted with a layer of clear sand fill. The sanitary land fills are far
more desirable than open dumps but the ground water contamination is
always a potential problem. Once a land fill operation has been completed
the site must be inspected periodically. This land fill is suitable for
recreational activities such as parks and play ground. (Management of non hazardous wastes)

2.Incineration :

Municipal incinerators burn combustible solid waste and
melt certain non-combustible materials. Since the high temperature destroys
pathogens and their vectors, it is a good method of disposal from health
point of view. The incineration can reduce the volume of solid waste by 80 to
90 percent. (Management of non hazardous wastes)

3.Reuse and recycling techniques : 

Resource recovery is a broad term
that is used for the retrieval of valuable materials or energy from a waste.
The separating out of materials such as rubber, glass, paper and scrap metal
from refuse and reprocessing them for reuse is named as reclamation of waste
or recycling.

Paper (54% recovery) can be repulped and reprocessed into
recycled paper, cardboard, and other paper products; finally ground and
sold as cellulose insulators or shredded and composted.

Glass (20% recovery) can be crushed, remelted and made into new
containers or crushes used as a substitute for gravel or sand in construction
materials such as concrete and asphalt. (Management of non hazardous wastes)

Some forms of plastics (2.2 % recovery) can be remelted and
fabricated into carpet fibre, fill for insulated apparel, irrigation drainage, tiles
and sheet plastics.

Metals can be melted and refabricated (39% recovery).
Food wastes and yard wastes (leaves, grass etc.) can be composted
to produce humus soil conditioner.

Textiles can be shredded and used to strengthen recycled paper
products. Old tyres can be remelted or shredded and incorporated into
highway asphalt.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human population and explosion

  2. Population Explosion

  3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

  4. Global warming – Green house effect

  5. Ozone layer depletion

  6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

  7. Waste management – Classification

  8. Management of hazardous wastes

  9. Management of non hazardous wastes

  10. Waste water treatment and management

  11. Biodiversity

  12. Conservation of Biodiversity

  13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

  14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

  15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

  16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

  17. Poverty and environment

  18. Fresh water crisis and management

Unit 6. APPLIED BIOLOGY Topic List Zoology

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

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