12th Zoology

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is the metabolic disorder of carbohydrate
metabolism caused by insufficient or nil production of the hormone insulin
by the pancreas. Insulin is responsible for the absorption of glucose into
cells for their energy needs and into the liver and fat cells for storage as
glycogen reserve. Insulin deficiency may be due to (1) pancreatic disorders
(2) defects in the synthesis of insulin from Beta cells of Langerhans
(in pancreas) (3) destruction of Beta cells and (4) genetic defects etc.

Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus

(1) The blood sugar level is more than 120mg. in diabetic patients.

(2) Untreated diabetes exhibits the following symptoms.
(a) Polyurea – excretion of increased quantity of urine.
(b) Polydipsia – excessive thirst leading to increased consumption of water.
(c) Polyphagia – excessive appetite leads to increased in take of food. In
spite of over eating, diabetic patient looses weight.

(3) Weakness and body pain are the common symptoms.

(4) The body’s inability to store or use glucose causes weight loss, insatiable
hunger and fatigue.

(5) Diabetes mellitus also results in abnormal (fat) metabolism.

(6) Accelerated degeneration of small blood vessels.

Type’s of diabetes mellitus

(1) Insulin –dependent type.
(2) Non-insulin dependent.

Insulin-dependent type: This type develops due to heavy viral infection which
reduces the production of insulin.

Non-insulin dependent: This is due to inadequate amount of insulin
production. Obesity (over weight) is the major reason. This type usually of
gradual onset and develops mainly in people over 40. Recently insulin
resistant diabetes is commonly noticed and reported in younger persons too.

Causes for Diabetes

(1) Diabetes tends to run in families so it occurs in people who inherit the
genes responsible for the insulin dependent form.
(2) Viral infection that damages the pancreas causing the deficiencyof insulin.
(3) Obesity is the major cause leading to development of non insulin dependent
diabetes.
(4) Severe illness such as pancreatitis and thyrotoxicosis causes diabetes.
(5) Intake of drugs like corticosteroid drugs and diuretic drugs.

The preventive measures comprise

(1) Maintenance of normal body weight through adoption of healthy
nutritional habits and physical exercise.
(2) Correction of over nutrition and obesity may reduce the risk of diabetes
and its complications.
(3) Alcohol and smoking should be avoided.
(4) Control of high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and high triglyceride
levels.
(5) Susceptible persons can prevent diabetes by avoiding the risk factors.

When diabetes is detected, it must be adequately treated.In order to
maintain blood glucose levels within the normal limits one should maintain
ideal body weight. It is achieved by balanced diet, physical exercise, frequent
checking of blood sugar, blood pressure. Maintenance of body weight and
visual acuity are some prognostic tips.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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