Diabetes mellitus is the metabolic disorder of carbohydrate
metabolism caused by insufficient or nil production of the hormone insulin
by the pancreas. Insulin is responsible for the absorption of glucose into
cells for their energy needs and into the liver and fat cells for storage as
glycogen reserve. Insulin deficiency may be due to (1) pancreatic disorders
(2) defects in the synthesis of insulin from Beta cells of Langerhans
(in pancreas) (3) destruction of Beta cells and (4) genetic defects etc.
Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus
(1) The blood sugar level is more than 120mg. in diabetic patients.
(2) Untreated diabetes exhibits the following symptoms.
(a) Polyurea – excretion of increased quantity of urine.
(b) Polydipsia – excessive thirst leading to increased consumption of water.
(c) Polyphagia – excessive appetite leads to increased in take of food. In
spite of over eating, diabetic patient looses weight.
(3) Weakness and body pain are the common symptoms.
(4) The body’s inability to store or use glucose causes weight loss, insatiable
hunger and fatigue.
(5) Diabetes mellitus also results in abnormal (fat) metabolism.
(6) Accelerated degeneration of small blood vessels.
Type’s of diabetes mellitus
(1) Insulin –dependent type.
(2) Non-insulin dependent.
Insulin-dependent type: This type develops due to heavy viral infection which
reduces the production of insulin.
Non-insulin dependent: This is due to inadequate amount of insulin
production. Obesity (over weight) is the major reason. This type usually of
gradual onset and develops mainly in people over 40. Recently insulin
resistant diabetes is commonly noticed and reported in younger persons too.
Causes for Diabetes
(1) Diabetes tends to run in families so it occurs in people who inherit the
genes responsible for the insulin dependent form.
(2) Viral infection that damages the pancreas causing the deficiencyof insulin.
(3) Obesity is the major cause leading to development of non insulin dependent
(4) Severe illness such as pancreatitis and thyrotoxicosis causes diabetes.
(5) Intake of drugs like corticosteroid drugs and diuretic drugs.
The preventive measures comprise
(1) Maintenance of normal body weight through adoption of healthy
nutritional habits and physical exercise.
(2) Correction of over nutrition and obesity may reduce the risk of diabetes
and its complications.
(3) Alcohol and smoking should be avoided.
(4) Control of high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and high triglyceride
(5) Susceptible persons can prevent diabetes by avoiding the risk factors.
When diabetes is detected, it must be adequately treated.In order to
maintain blood glucose levels within the normal limits one should maintain
ideal body weight. It is achieved by balanced diet, physical exercise, frequent
checking of blood sugar, blood pressure. Maintenance of body weight and
visual acuity are some prognostic tips.
Related Topics in Zoology:
- Human Physiology Introduction
- Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones
- Proteins (Polypeptides)
- Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins
- Deficiency of Vitamin
- Minerals – Water – Role of water
- Balanced diet
- Digestive System
- Dental Caries (Tooth decay)
- Root Canal Treatment
- Peptic ulcer
- Hernia and Types
- Appendicitis (Appendix)
- Gall Stones
- Fractures – Types of fractures
- Mechanism of fracture
- Dislocation of joints
- Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics
- Mechanism of muscle contraction
- Types of muscle contraction
- Myasthenia Gravis
- Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration
- Mechanism of Breathing
- Regulation of Respiration
- Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment
- Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes
- Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart
- Cardiac Cycle
- Coronary blood vessel and its significance
- Myocardial infarction
- Angina pectoris
- Angiogram – Angioplasty
- Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves
- Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
- Blood Pressure
- Heart transplantation
- Pulse rate
- Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
- Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells
- Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis
- Nervous system Co-ordination systems
- The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
- Sleep – Types of sleep
- Stroke – Brain haemorrhage
- Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)
- Conditioned reflex
- Electroencephalography EEG
- Right and Left brain concept
- Spinal cord functioning
- Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands
- Pituitary gland – hormone
- Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin
- Thyroid gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Adrenal gland
- Receptor Organs – Eye
- Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments
- Errors of refraction
- Optometry – Retinopathy
- Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia
- Eye Infections and Eye Care
- Mechanism of hearing
- Defects of the ear
- Hearing Aid – Noise pollution
- Skin and functions of skin
- Melanin functions
- Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting
- Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation
- Excretion Ureotelism Nephron
- Mechanism of urine formation
- Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines
- Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation
- Diabetes mellitus
- Functioning of male reproductive system
- Functioning of female reproductive system
- Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle
- Birth control