12th Zoology

Bio Zoology Biology Higher Secondary Second Year Tamil Nadu State Board

Bio Zoology Biology Higher Secondary Second Year Tamil Nadu State Board Syllabus

Human Physiology Content Zoology

Introduction – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids – Vitamins – Minerals – Water – Balanced diet – Calorie values (ICMR standards) – Obesity – Hyperglycemia – hypoglycemia – Malnutritions. Digestion : Enzymes and enzyme action – Brief account of following – Dental caries – Root canal therapy – Peptic ulcer – Hernia – Appendicitis – Gall bladder stone – Liver cirrhosis – Hepatitis. Bones and Joints (Major types) : Fractures – Dislocations – Arthritis – Rickets and osteomalacia – Orthopaedics – Gout. Muscles : Muscle action – Muscle tone – Rigor mortis – Muscle pull (hernia) – Isometric and aerobic exercises (Body building) – Myasthenia gravis. Respiration : Process of pulmonary respiration – Inspiration – Expiration – Exchange of gases at alveolar level – Control of respiration – Pneumonia – Pleurisy – Tuberculosis – Bronchitis – Breathing exercises Circulation-Functioning of heart-Origin and conduction of heart beat. Artificial pacemaker-Coronary blood vessel and its significance-Myocardial infarction,Angina pectoris-Angiogram,angioplasty and coronary bipass surgery- Atherosclerosis-Heart attack-Heart block-ECG and Echo cardiograph-Heart valves Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)-ICCUArterial and venous systems-Blood pressure-pulse rate-Heart transplantation Resuscitation in Heart attack (First Aid)-Blood components Function-Plasma-Corpuscles -Blood clotting-Anticoagulants-Thrombosis- Embolism-blood related diseases like polycythemia Leukemia-Lymph fluid. Physiological-Co-ordination Systems-Brain-Functioning of different regions-Memory-Sleep-Stroke-Alzhemier’s disease-Meningitis/Brain fever Conditioned reflex-Electroencephalography-Right brain-left brain concept-Spinal cord- Functioning-Reflex action-CSF-Chemical co-ordination-Pituitary (Hormones of Adenohypophysis and their regulations)-Thyroid,Parathyroidal hormones-Insulin and Glucagon-Hormones of Adrenal cortex and Medulla-Reproductive Hormones-Problems related to Secretion Non secretion of Hormones. Receptor Organs-Eye-Focussing Mechanism & photo chemistry of retina-Short sightedness-Longsightedness-Optometry-Retinopathy-Cataract-Lens  eplacement- Nyctalopia-Eye infection-Conjunctivitis-Glaucuoma-Eye care-EAR-Hearing mechanism- Organ of corti-Hearing impairments and aids-Noise pollution and its importance- SKIN-Melanin-functions-Effect of solar radiations/UV-Skin Grafting- Dematitis-TONGUE-Gustatory reception. Excretion-Ureotelism-Urea Biosynthesis(Ornithine Cycle)-Nephron ultrafiltration,tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion-Renal failure-Dialysis Kidney stone formation-Kidney Transplantation-Diabetes. Reproductive system-Brief account of speramtogenesis – Oogenesis Menstrual cycle-Invitro fertilization-Birthcontrol

Unit 1 – Human Physiology Topic List Zoology

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

Microbiology : Zoology

Introduction-History of Medical Microbiology-The influence of
Pasteur Koch, and Lister-Virology, Structure, Genetics, Culture and diseases-AIDS and its control-Bacteriology-Structure,Genetics and diseases-Protozoan microbiology- Disease oriented-Pathogenecity of Micro organism-Anti microbial resistance Chemotherapy.

Unit 2 – Microbiology Topic List Zoology

  1. Microbiology Introduction and History of Medical Microbiology

  2. Pasteur, Koch, Lister

  3. Structure of Viruses

  4. Viral genetics

  5. Virus Culture

  6. Viral Diseases

  7. Bacteria Structure Culture

  8. Bacterial Genetics

  9. Bacterial Diseases

  10. Protozoan microbiology

  11. Pathogenecity of Microorganisms

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance

  13. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy

  14. AIDS – HIV

Immunology: Zoology

Innate(Non-specific) Immunity-Anatomical Barriers-Physiological Barriers-Phagocytic Barriers-Lymphoidal organs -Thymus-Bursa of Fabricius-Peripheral Lymphoid Organs-Lymph nodes-Spleen-Antibodies-Immunoglobulins-Regions of polypepetide chain-Transplantation immunology-Classification of grafts- Genetic basis of organ transplants-Immune system disorder.

Unit 3 – Immunology Topic List Zoology

  1. IMMUNOLOGY

  2. Acquired Immunity

  3. Structure and Functions of the Immune System

  4. Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

  5. Secondary Lymphoid Organs

  6. Antigenic determinants and epitopes

  7. Antibodies – Immunoglobulins

  8. Transplantation immunology

  9. Genetic basis of organ transplants

  10. Immune system disorders

Modern genetics : Zoology

Introduction-Scope-Human Genetics karyotyping Chromosome gene mapping, Recombinant DNA technology and segmenting. Genetic diseases-Human Genome project-Cloning-Transgenic organisms Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)-Genetherapy-Bio informatics application-DNA sequencing and protein structure.Biological database

UNIT 4. MODERN GENETICS Topic List Zoology

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure

Environmental science : Zoology

Human population and explosion-Issue-Global warming Crisis Green House Effect-Ozone layer depletion Waste mangement-Biodiversiy conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and Non Govermental organisations involved-Energy crisis and Environmental impact-Poverty and environment-Fresh water crisis and management.

UNIT 5. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Topic List Zoology

  1. Human population and explosion

  2. Population Explosion

  3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

  4. Global warming – Green house effect

  5. Ozone layer depletion

  6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

  7. Waste management – Classification

  8. Management of hazardous wastes

  9. Management of non hazardous wastes

  10. Waste water treatment and management

  11. Biodiversity

  12. Conservation of Biodiversity

  13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

  14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

  15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

  16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

  17. Poverty and environment

  18. Fresh water crisis and management

Applied biology : Zoology

Livestock and Management-Dairy-Breeds of cattle-Milch breed- Draught breed-Dual purpose-Common diseases and control-Exotic and cross breeds- Techniques adopted in cattle breeding. Poultry-Farming techniques-Breeds. Farming methods-Poultry diseases-Economic value. Pisciculture-Fish farming-Edible fishes of Tamilnadu. Medical Lab Techniques-Stethoscope-Sphygmomanometer-Heamocytometer-Urine- Sugar analysis-ECG-’PQRST’wave-CTScan-Endoscopic (Laproscopic) techniques-
Artificial pacemaker-Auto analyser

Unit 6. APPLIED BIOLOGY Topic List Zoology

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

Theories of evolution : Zoology

Lamarckism-Neolamarckism-Darwinism-NeoDarwinism / Modern concept of natural selection-Species concept-Origin of species and Isolating Mechanisms

Unit 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Topic List Zoology

  1. Theories Of Evolution Introduction

  2. Lamarck Laws

  3. Neo Lamarckism

  4. Darwinism

  5. Theory of Natural Selection

  6. Objections to Darwinism

  7. Modern concept of Natural Selection

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