12th Zoology

Balanced diet

Balanced diet

A balanced diet must have all food supplements in needed
proportion. It should be preferred in such a way that normal growth.
working capability, nitrogen balance and full calorie requirement can be
maintained. While planning a balanced diet, the total calorie requirement of
the individual is calculated and then the different components of the food are
selected. Normally the calorie content of the food is fixed with an
understanding that 10 -15 % of calories are to be obtained from proteins,
25 – 30% from fats and the rest from carbohydrates.

Calorie values

In nutrition and dietetics a calorie means the amount of heat required
to raise 1 Kg water by 10C. As per the Nutrition Expert Committee of ICMR
(1968) the calorie requirements are prescribed for Indian Reference Man
(IRM) and Woman (IRW). The IRM and IRW have following
characteristics.
IRM :- 25 years of age, 1.62 sq.mt of body surface, 55 kg body weight and
remains healthy.
IRW :- 25 years of age, 1.4 sq.mt of body surface, 45 kg body weight and
remains healthy.
The calorie requirement for IRM and IRW depending on their nature
of work is prescribed as follows

IRM

Daily activities Sedantary Moderate Heavy
work work work
A. Basal metabolism (BMR) 460 calories 460 calories 460 calories
(8 Hrs of Sleep)
B. Non occupational 1220 calories 1220 calories 1220 calories
activities (8 Hrs)
C. Occupational 750 calories 1100 calories 2200 calories
activities (8 Hrs)
Total 2430 calories 2780 calories 3880 calories

IRW

A. Basal metabolism 354 calories 354calories 354 calories
(8 Hrs of sleep)
B. Non occupational 826 calories 826calories 826 calories
activities (8 Hrs)
C. Occupational 610 calories 900calories 1800 calories
activities (8 Hrs)
Total 1790calories 2080calories 2980calories

While formulating and planning the diet for a person, his/her calorie
requirement is assessed. This assessment is based on the requirement of IRM
and IRW. It is adjusted according to age, weight, health and working
conditions. Final prescription of food is provided based on the calorie value
of each item of food. Due attention is given also for palatability and social
food habit. Balanced diet for Indian adult male and female doing moderate
work.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics


  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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