12th-standard-Green manures Mycorrhiza biofertilizer study-material-notes-book-botany-neet
12th botany neet school

Green manuring, Mycorrhiza as biofertilizer

Green manuring

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Various leguminous plants like Crotalaria juncea, Cassia mimusoides, Glycine max, Indigofera linifolia, Sesbania rostrata, Acacia nilotica, Leucena, Lathyrus and Mucuna are used as green manures.

They accumulate more than 80 Kg of nitrogen per hectare in the soil when grown as green manures. Azolla is an aquatic fern, which contains an endophytic cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae in its leaves.

It is used as a biofertilizer in rice field. Out of six species of Azolla, A. pinnata is widely employed as a successful biofertilizer in Indian rice fields. It adds 30 Kg of nitrogen per hectare where the yield is equivalent to that of urea or ammonium phosphate.

Mycorrhiza as biofertilizer

Mycorrhiza is a root inhabiting fungus found around or inside the
roots of many plants. It increases growth and yield and also provides protection to the roots against edaphic (soil) stresses, pathogen and pests.

Helps in the increased uptake of soil and mineral water solution by the plant root system. It provides many uses for the host plants eg. VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) fungi. Mycorrhiza is of two types.

a. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza, which are found only outside the surface
of roots of plants. eg. Basidiomycetous fungi.

b. Endotrophic mycorrhiza, which are found inside the roots, in the
intercellular spaces and even inside the cell (intra and intercellular)
eg. VAM fungi.

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Other links 

Plant physiology – photosynthesis and its significance


BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE Introduction & Food production


Aims of plant breeding


Aspects of plant breeding and Types


Hybridization in plant breeding


Polyploid breeding, Mutation breeding, Breeding for disease resistance


Genetic engineering, Improved varieties, Role of biofertilizers


Benefits from biofertilizers


Crop diseases and their control, Rice – Oryza sativa


Groundnut or peanut – Arachis hypogea


Citrus canker, Tungro disease of rice


Biocontrol of insect pests Bacterial pesticides


Genetically modified food


Bio war, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in biological warfare


Biopiracy, Bioresources, Biomolecules, Biopatent, Biotechnology


Sustainable agriculture


Medicinal plants including microbes


Commonly Available Medicinal Plants


Microbes in medicine


Economic importance of Food plant Rice


Oil plant Groundnut Economic importance


Fibre plant – Cotton Economic importance


Timber yielding plant Teak Economic importance


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