botany important notes and explanation
12th botany neet school

12th Standard Bio Botany Higher Secondary School Tamil Nadu State Board

12th STANDARD BIO BOTANY BIOLOGY Higher Secondary Second Year Tamil Nadu State Board SYLLABUS

UNIT – 1  Taxonomy of Angiosperms

Types of classifications – artificial – natural – phylogenetic. Biosystematics – binomial nomenclature – herbarium and its uses. Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants – families – Malvaceae – Solanaceae – Euphorbiaceae – Musaceae and their Economic importance.

UNIT 1 AUDIO EXPLANATION:

  1. TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS, TYPES OF CLASSIFICATION

  2. BIOSYSTEMATICS NOMENCLATURE

  3. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, ICBN

  4. HERBARIA AND ITS USES IMPORTANCE OF HERBARIUM

  5. Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants

  6. Dicot Families – MALVACEAE

  7. Botanical description of Hibiscus and Economical importance of Malvaceae

  8. Solanaceae – Datura metal and Economic importance

  9. Euphorbiaceae and Ricinus communis and its Economic importance

  10. Musaceae – Musa paradisiaca and its Economic Importance

UNIT – 2   Plant anatomy 

Tissue and tissue systems – anatomy of monocot and dicot roots – anatomy of monocot and dicot stems – anatomy of dicot leaf.

UNIT 2 AUDIO EXPLANATION:

  1. Plant anatomy – Meristematic tissue

  2. Permanent tissue , simple tissue characteristics

  3. Complex tissues , Xylem and its Kinds

  4. Phloem and its Kinds

  5. Tissue system – Epidermal,Vascular and fundamental tissue system

  6. Primary structure of monocotyledonous root – Maize root

  7. Structure of dicotyledonous root – Bean root

  8. Anatomy of monocot stem – Maize stem

  9. Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem – Sunflower stem

  10. Anatomy of a dicot and monocot leaves

UNIT – 3 Cell biology and genetics

Chromosomes – structure and types – genes and genomes – linkage and crossing over – gene mapping – recombination of chromosomes – mutation – chromosomal aberrations – DNA as genetic material – structure of DNA – replication of DNA – structure of RNA and its types.

UNIT 3 AUDIO EXPLANATION:

  1. STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOME – CELL BIOLOGY

  2. Types of chromosomes with special types

  3. Gene and genome

  4. Linkage and mechanism of linkage

  5. Crossing over, gene mapping and recombination of chromosome

  6. Mutation and classification of mutation

  7. Mutagenic agents and its significance

  8. Structural Chromosomal aberrations

  9. Numerical chromosomal aberrations

  10. Role of DNA 

  11. Structure of DNA and Function of DNA

  12. Replication of DNA

  13. Structure of RNA and Types of RNA

UNIT – 4 Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA technology – transgenic plants and microbes – plant tissue culture and its application – protoplasmic fusion – single cell protein.

UNIT 4 AUDIO EXPLANATION:

  1. Recombinant DNA technology

  2. Gene transfer in plants, Cutting of DNA, Advantages of recombinant DNA

  3. Transgenic plants – Herbicide resistance in transgenic plants

  4. Practical application of genetic transformation

  5. Plant tissue culture – origin and techniques

  6. Basic techniques of plant tissue culture

  7. Status of tissue culture technology in India And application

  8. Protoplast fusion and Practical applications

  9. Single cell protein and its uses

UNIT – 5 Plant physiology

Photosynthesis – significance – site of photosynthesis – photochemical and biosynthetic phases – electron transport system – cyclic and non-cyclic and Cphotophosphorylation – C pathways – photorespiration – factors – saprophytic – parasitic and insectivorous plants – chemosynthesis – respiration – mechanism of glycolysis – Krebs cycle – pentose phosphate pathway – anaerobic respiration – respiratory quotient – compensation pointaffecting photosynthesis – mode of nutrition – autotrophic – heterotrophic – fermentation. Plant growth – growth regulators – phytohormones – auxins – gibberellins – cytokinins – ethylene and abscisic acid.  Photoperiodism and vernalization.

UNIT 5 AUDIO EXPLANATION:

  1. Plant physiology – photosynthesis and its significance

  2. Site of photosynthesis and Mechanism of photosynthesis

  3. Electron transport system and photophosphorylation types

  4. Dark reaction

  5. C3 and C4 pathways

  6. Photorespiration or C2 cycle

  7. Factors affecting photosynthesis

  8. Test tube and funnel experiment, Ganong’s light screen experiment

  9. Mode of nutrition – Autotrophic, Heterotrophic

  10. Chemosynthesis

  11. Mechanism of Respiration – Glycolysis

  12. Mechanism of Respiration – Oxidative decarboxylation , Krebs cycle

  13. Mechanism of Respiration – Electron Transport Chain, Energy Yield

  14. Ganong’s respiroscope, Pentose phosphate pathway

  15. Anaerobic respiration, Respiratory quotient, Compensation point, Kuhne’s fermentation tube experiment

  16. Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth

  17. Phytohormones Auxins

  18. Phytohormones Gibberellins

  19. Phytohormones Cytokinin, Ethylene, Abscisic Acid, Growth Inhibitors – Physiological Effects


  20. Photoperiodism and vernalization, Phytochromes and flowering

UNIT – 6  Biology in human welfare 

Food production – breeding experiments – improved varieties and role of biofertilizers.  Crop diseases and their control – biopesticides – genetically modified food – biowar – biopiracy – biopatent – sustained agriculture and medicinal plants including microbes. Economic importance – food yielding (rice) – oil yielding (groundnut) – fibre yielding (cotton) and timber yielding (teak) plants.

  1. BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE Introduction & Food production

  2. Aims of plant breeding

  3. Aspects of plant breeding and Types

  4. Hybridization in plant breeding

  5. Polyploid breeding, Mutation breeding, Breeding for disease resistance

  6. Genetic engineering, Improved varieties, Role of biofertilizers

  7. Green manuring, Mycorrhiza as biofertilizer

  8. Benefits from biofertilizers

  9. Crop diseases and their control, Rice – Oryza sativa

  10. Groundnut or peanut – Arachis hypogea

  11. Citrus canker, Tungro disease of rice

  12. Biocontrol of insect pests Bacterial pesticides

  13. Genetically modified food

  14. Bio war, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in biological warfare

  15. Biopiracy, Bioresources, Biomolecules, Biopatent, Biotechnology

  16. Sustainable agriculture

  17. Medicinal plants including microbes

  18. Commonly Available Medicinal Plants

  19. Microbes in medicine

  20. Economic importance of Food plant Rice

  21. Oil plant Groundnut Economic importance

  22. Fibre plant – Cotton Economic importance

  23. Timber yielding plant Teak Economic importance

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