Imperialism in India 10 standard history study material and notes
10th Social Science History school

Imperialism in India & china

Imperialism in India

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The political condition i.e. the rivalry among the native rulers rather than the motive of the British instigated imperialism in India.

The England East India Company was formed in 1600 in England and later it set up a trading post at Surat with the permission of Mughal Emperor, Jahangir.

In the next few years the Mughals granted Britain the right to trade and to establish factories in exchange for English naval protection  to the Mughal Empire, which faced Portuguese sea power.

In 1664, the French East India Company was established by Colbert, a minister of Louis XIV of France and opened  trading centres in India.

There started rivalry between France and Britain. It led to Carnatic wars resulting in the uprooting of the French influence in India.

In  1757,  the  Nawab  of  Bengal Siraj-Ud-Daulah, opposed the British attempts to use Duty free Trade in Bengal.

It resulted in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 led by Robert Clive. The East India Company was granted undisputed right to trade free of tax in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and the 24 parganas near present Calcutta.

The Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II after its success in the Battle of Buxar in 1764.

It marked the beginning of Company’s formal rule in India. Lord Wellesley conquered number of states in India by his  Subsidiary Alliance.

Lord Dalhousie annexed many more states by his Doctrine of Lapse. In 1857, the Great Indian Revolt  against  the English East India Company’s rule broke out and later it was suppressed.

In 1858, the administration of India was passed to the British Crown by Queen Victoria’s Proclamation.

India continued to be under the rule of British Government  till her independence  in 1947.

Imperialism in China
It is an interesting thing to study about imperialism in China. The Chinese  regarded themselves as superior, and the only truly civilized in the world.

The other Asian traders adopted  the Chinese  culture  but not the European traders.

Hence the trade with  these  foreign powers was restricted to the cities of Canton and Macao from 1757 by the Chinese Emperor.

But the Europeans were irritated by the Chinese behavior.

To India, the British imported sufficient British goods  from England for   Indian  goods.

It  avoided   them paying   in   gold.   But   the   Chinese restricted all trades to the specific ports under the supervision of government officials.

The Chinese sold tea and coffee to the British but always wanted   payment in gold. Over time, the British became worried that huge amounts of gold were ending up in China. So they found out a short cut.

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Imperialism in India

Explain in briefly about Imperialism in India?

Imperialism in china

Explain in briefly about Imperialism in china?


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